Evaluating Information
Information process models
information literacy
Inquiry learning

Information fluency

Information skills
Search strategies

Web Resources


Directory of Online Resources for Information Literacy: Definitions of Information Literacy and Related Terms. Marc Dibble, Editor. 2004.
SHAMBLES: Information Literacy (for All). The Education Project Asia, 2007.


Bloom's Taxonomy: Original and Revised. 2005.
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy: Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. 2003.
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy.
Callison, Daniel. Critical Literacy and Inquiry. SOS Spotlight. Fall 2006.
Callison, Daniel. Critical Thinking.


AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner. ALA, 2007.
Standards for the 21st--Century Learner: Comparisons with NETS and State Standards. Pappas, Marjorie. SLMAM (June 2008) 24.10.
Correlation of the Library Information Literacy Standards and Indiana’s Academic Standards. Indiana Department of Education, 2007.
NOTE: This version includes the correlation of the AASL/AECT ILS and the Indiana Academic Standards.
Illinois Learning Standards. Illinois State Board of Education.
NOTE: Look under English for the Research strand.
Academic Content Standards. Ohio Department of Education.
NOTE: The Library standards are very comprehensive.
NETS: The Next Generation. ISTE, 2007.
New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. State of New Jersey, Department of Education, 2006.
NYC Information Fluency Continuum. New York City Schools.
North Carolina Standard Course of Study. Public Schools of North Carolina. State Board of Education.
NOTE: North Carolina has a separate curriculum for information skills.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills.


Educators’ Reference Desk: Information Literacy. Information Institute of Syracuse.
Indiana Learns. Indiana Department of Education, Office of Learning Resources.
Information Literacy for K-16 Settings. Maintained by Dr. Leslie Farmer. 2006.
Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education. Kent State University.
Resources for School Librarians: Information Skills Instruction. Maintained by Linda Bertland.
TRAILS: Trail for Real Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills. Kent State Library and Media Services, 2007.
21st Century Information Fluency Project. Illinois Math and Science Academy. 2002-2007.


Information Age Inquiry. Developed by Annette Lamb. EduScapes, 2005, 2006.
NOTE: Loaded with information about information inquiry, process models, etc.
The Big6™: An Information Problem-Solving Process. Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz. (2001-2005). Big6 Associates.
Reading for Information: The Trash-n- Treasure Method of Note Taking: Barbara A. Jenson. Grades 3-12.
The 8 Ws of Information Literacy. Annette Lamb, 2004.
I-Search. Ahram Choi, Stuti Garg, & Margaret Kilroy In Michael Orey (Ed.), Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology, 2006.
The Research Cycle 2000. Jamison McKenzie. (Dec, 1999) FNO, 9.4.
Nuts and Bolts of the Big6™. (2005). SBC Knowledge Ventures.
Pathways to Knowledge™. Developed by Marjorie L. Pappas and Ann E. Tepe. Follett Software Co., 2000.
Alice in InfoLand: FLIP IT! Developed by Alice Yucht.
So You Have to Do a Research Project. E. M. Zack.
STEPS Programme. In2Edu. 2005.

SLM Professional Journals
Many of these journal web sites include a sampling of articles (full text) from each issue on the web.

Edutopia. The George Lucas Foundation.
NOTE: This is an innovative web site that includes web-based issues of the magazine and also creative ideas for LMS and teachers.
Knowledge Quest on the Web
MultiMedia and Internet @ Schools.
LMC : Library Media Connection. Linworth.
Learning and Leading with Technology. ISTE.
School Library Media Activities Monthly. Libraries Unlimited.
Note: This periodical is indexed in Academic Search Premier but with citations and abstracts only. No full text. However, this is a popular journal to which many LMS subscribe. Check with your school LMS to learn if your school has a subscription. The journal often includes excellent examples of lesson plans that incorporate information literacy as well a useful articles on topics related to our course.
School Library Journal
School Libraries in Canada
. Canadian Association for School Libraries.

SLMR. AASL. School Library Media Research is the research journal for AASL.
Teacher Librarian


Primary publishers of school library books include ALA Publishing, Libraries Unlimited, Linworth, and Neal-Schuman. Each of these has a web site which LMS might want to explore periodically for new books to add to the library professional collection.

AASL. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action. Chicago: ALA, 2009.
NOTE: This new publication includes the Standards for the 21st-Century Learner along with sections that provide grade-level indicators for each of the benchmarks across all four of the standards. Included also are some examples of activities and lessons to correlate with the standards. LMS will find this book very useful as they work to integrate the new AASL standards into the school IL curriculum.

AASL & AECT. Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning. Chicago: ALA, 1998.

Callison, Daniel and Leslie Preddy. The Blue Book on Information Age Inquiry, Instruction and Literacy. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
NOTE: Includes chapters on “Information Search and Use Models,” Models for Information Inquiry, Composition, and Scientific Inquiry,” and “Information Literacy, Media Literacy, and Information Fluency.” This comprehensive work on inquiry and information literacy is a “must-have” addition to the SLM professional collection.

Eisenberg, Michael B. and Robert E. Berkowitz. Information Problem-Solving: The Big Six Skills Approach to Library & Information Skills Instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1995.
NOTE: This was the first publication about The Big Six Skills model. While much has been written about the model since and the web site is excellent for a wide variety of resources, this still remains the definitive work on the model.

Eisenberg, Michael B. and Robert E. Berkowitz. The Big 6 Research Notebook. Worthington, OH: Linworth, 2006.

Hyerle, David. A field Guide to Using Visual Tools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1996.

Hyerle, David. Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2000.
NOTE: Hyerle focuses his writing on the application of webbing and mind mapping to enable knowledge construction. His books are the perfect partner with Inspiration and Kidspiration and teaching students both thinking and process skills.

Koechlin, Carol. & Sandi Zwaan Build Your Own Information Literate School. Salt Lake City, UT. Hi Willow Research, 2003.
NOTE: Koechlin and Zwaan are school librarians. This book, and others they have written, is loaded with examples of graphic organizers along with lessons designed to teach learners to apply the many skills involved with finding, evaluating and using information.

Loertscher, David V. and Blanche Woolls. Information Literacy: A Review of the Research. 2nd ed. San Jose, CA: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2002.
NOTE: Loertscher and Woolls focus on information literacy and various models. They include chapters that provide background on constructivist learning theory and research that validates collaboration and inquiry. While this may sound heavy, the book is very readable and only 165 pages. Included also is a timeline showing the development of the information process models.

Pappas, Marjorie L. and Ann E. Tepe. Pathways to Knowledge® and Inquiry Learning. Greenwood Village, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
NOTE: The Pathways to Knowledge® model is explained with scenarios that illustrate each step of the model within various curricular areas. The appendix includes three thematic units for elementary, middle, and high school plus a copy of the graphic version of the model.

Rankin, Virginia. The Thoughtful Researcher: Teaching the Research Process to Middle School Students. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.
NOTE: Ryan is a middle school teacher librarian. She does not use a specific information process model but this book follows her process of teaching the research process to her students. It is very readable and practical.

Ryan, Jenny and Steph Capra. Information Literacy Toolkit: Grades Kindergarten-6. Chicago: ALA, 2001.
Ryan, Jenny and Steph Capra. Information Literacy Toolkit: Grades 7 and Up. Chicago: ALA, 2001.
NOTE: Ryan and Capra’s books include an Information Literacy Planning Organizer by grade level with specific skills related to the steps of an information process; Planning Organizers, and Teaching Tools. A CD is included with each book.

Stripling, Barbara K. and Judy M. Pitts. Brainstorms and Blueprints: Teaching Library Research as a Thinking Process.” Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1988.

NOTE: Stripling and Pitts created their research process shortly after Kuhlthau completed her research on the information research process. Their model is still in use in many schools today.

Stripling, Barbara K. “Inquiry-Based Learning.” Curriculum Connections through the Library. Ed. Barbara K. Stripling and Sandra Hughes-Hassell. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2003.

NOTE: This chapter contains a section on Stripling’s Inquiry Process. Stripling compares the Inquiry Process with Information Problem-Solving.

Tallman, Julie I. and Marilyn Z. Joyce. Making the Writing and Research Connection with the I-Search Process. 2nd ed. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2006.
NOTE: Tallman and Joyce show how an information seeking process connects with the writing process and applies across the curriculum. Their version of the I-Search Process places emphasis on the first step – What do I want to know? – along with using the Double-Entry Draft for note taking and student choice of the final product. A CD that includes unit examples and organizers accompanies the book.

Thompson, Helen M. and Susan A. Henley. Fostering Information Literacy. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000.

Revised February 2009.