Designing Lessons Pathfinder

Scope: This pathfinder provides examples of resources and tools for teachers and teacher librarians who are designing lessons focused on content areas and information literacy. .


Evaluate information
Information literacy
Curriculum planning
Planning Guides
Search strategies


American Association of School Librarians. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action. ALA, 2009. NEW!!!
Buzzeo, Toni.
Collaborating to Meet Literacy Standards: Teacher/Librarian Partnerships for Grades K-2. Linworth Books, 2007.
Buzzeo, Toni.
Collaborating to Meet Literacy Standards: Teacher/Librarian Partnerships for Grades 1-6. Linworth Books, 2002.
Buzzeo, Toni.
Collaborating to Meet Literacy Standards: Teacher/Librarian Partnerships for Grades 7-12. Linworth Books, 2002.
Graphic Organizers. Kagan Cooperative Learning. (Smart Card), 1998.
Harada, Violet H. and Joan M. Yoshina. Assessing Learning: Librarians and Teachers as Partners. Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
Harada, Harada H., Carolyn H. Kirio, and Sandra H. Yamamoto. Collaborating for Project-Based Learning: Grades 9-12. Linworth Books, 2008.
Harada, Violet H. and Joan M. Yoshina. Inquiry Learning through Librarian-Teacher Partnerships. Linworth, 2004.
Hyerle, David. A Field Guide to Using Visual Tools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2000.
Hyerle, David. Visual tools for constructing knowledge. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1996.
Koechlin, Carol and Sandi Zwaan. Build Your Own Information Literate School. Spring, TX: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2003.
Valenza, Joyce Kasman. Power Research Tools. Chicago: ALA, 2003.

Zmuda, Allison and Violet H. Harada. Librarians as Learning Specialists: Meeting the Learning Imperative for the 21st Century. Libraries Unlimited, 2008.


Access Pennsylvania.
The Internet Public Library: Pathfinders. IPL, The Regents of the University of Michigan, 2002
The Multnomah County Library: Homework Center. (2006). Oregon. Multnomah County Library.
Jersey Clicks. The New Jersey State Library.
Kentucky Virtual Library (KYVL).


Edutopia. (n.d.). The George Lucas Foundation. Accessed on June 21, 2006. NOTE: This is an innovative web site that includes web-based issues of the magazine and creative ideas for teachers.

School Library Media Activities Monthly. Libraries Unlimited.
Published monthly. Each issue includes creative sample lesson plans for grades K-8 designed by teacher librarians.

Library Media Connection. Linworth Publications.
Published monthly. Includes articles with ideas for lessons and instructional strategies developed by teacher librarians.


Callison, Daniel. (2002, June). Information fluency. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 18 (10), 36-38.
Callison, Daniel. Organizers. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 16 (5), 36-39.
Callison, Daniel. “Scaffolding.” (2000, January). School Library Media Activities Monthly, (February 2001)17.6: 37-40.
Koechlin, Carol. & Zwaan, S. (2002, October). Focus on understanding. Teacher Librarian 30 (1), 8-13. Note: Anything that Koechlin and Zwaan write will help you teach your students to do research!!
Koechlin, C. & Zwaan, S. (2003). Kick it up a notch. School Libraries in Canada, 22.4
Pappas, M. L. (November, 2000). Evaluating information. School Library Media Activities Monthly 17.3, 22-26.
Pappas, Marjorie L. “Organizing Research.” School Library Media Activities Monthly 14.4 (1997) 30-32.
Pappas, Marjorie L. “State Landmarks.” School Library Media Activities Monthly 19.9 (May, 2003) 22-25.
Pappas, Marjorie L. “Writing Editorials.” School Library Media Activities Monthly 19.10 (June, 2003) 20-24.


AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner. ALA, 2007.

SLMAM Correlations Chart New (2007) to Old (1998). School Library Media Activities Monthly (February 2008) 24.6.

Information Literacy Curriculum. Clarkstown Central School District. West Nyack, NY, 2000.

Information Literacy Curriculum. Information Age Inquiry. Developed by Annette Lamb and Larrry Johnson. SCILS, IUPUI. 2006.

Information Literacy: Florida’s Library Media/Curriculum Connections. Bureau of Instruction and Innovation. Library Media Services. Tallahassee, FL. N.d.

Sample Information Literacy Curriculum Framework. Iowa Board of Education. N.d.

Information Literacy Across the Curriculum. Bunch Library Wiki. Belmont University.

Information Literacy and Library Resources. Online Resources for School Libraries. Developed by Peter Milbury. 2002.

Supervisor’s Resource Bank: Information Literacy and Library Curriculum Framework. Bellingham Public Schools. N.d.
Note: This site does have some dead links and at least one highly irregular link to Barbara Stripling’s web site that is a hoax.

Information Literacy. Bellevue School District. Bellevue, WA.
NOTE: Some of the links on this page are password protected. The site includes scope and sequence charts.



Curriculum collaboration toolkit. (2005). NoodleTools.
Two taxonomies of the school library media program. (1988). From the book by David Loertscher.

CRITICAL THINKING (include Bloom’s taxonomy)

Bloom, Benjamin. Bloom’s taxonomy: Sample questions,. 1956.
Critical and creative thinking.
Developed by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson., 2003.
Thinking and Learning. In2Edu. 2005.


Adventures of Cyberbee: Web evaluation. (2006). Linda Joseph.

Critically analyzing information sources. (2006). Cornell University.

Kathy Schrock’s guide for educators: Critical evaluation information. (2006). Discovery Education.

QUICK: The Quality information checklist. HDA and CHIQ, 2000.

Why Evaluate Information Sources? (2004). Kentucky Virtual Library.


BUBBL.US. A simple tool for creating organizers that can be used by groups.

Graphic organizers (1988). North Central Educational Laboratory.

Graphic organizers. (2000-2006). Pearson Education, Inc.

Graphic Organizers: Activity Bank. (n.d.). S.C.O.R.E.

Inspiration. Inspiration Software. 2009.

Library of Graphic Organizers. (n.d.).

McKenzie, J. (1997, October). Why Graphical Organizers? FNO, 7 (22006). Discovery Education.

Tools for Reading, Writing and Thinking. Greece Central School District.

The Virtual Institute. New Jersey Department of Education’s Technology Fellowship Initiative.

Webspiration. iLearn Technology. 2009.


American Memory. The Library of Congress, 2007.

Blue Web’n. AT & T Knowledge Ventures. 2005.

The Educator’s Reference Desk: Lesson Plans. Education Institute of Syracuse. (n.d.)

EXPEDITIONS. National Geographic Society, 2005.

Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education. Kent State University.
Includes the TRAILS Assessment.

Learn NC. North Carolina Department of Instruction.

The Learning Network: Connections for Students, Teachers, and Parents. The New York Times Company, 2007.

McKenzie, Jamie. “Nothing but Net: Creating Slam Dunk Lesson Plans.” FNO (Summer 2006) 15.6.

PBS TeacherSource. Public Broadcasting Service, 1995-2006.

Read-Write-Think. International Reading Association. 2009.

S.O.S. for Information Literacy. Syracuse University.

Thinkfinity: Education and Technology in the 21st Century. Verizon Foundation, 2007.


Six Common Mistakes in Writing Lesson Plans. Dr. Bob Kizlik. 2008.

10 Steps to Developing a Quality Lesson Plan. HotChalk. 2008.

Lesson Planning. University of Missouri-Columbia. School of Information Science and Learning Technologies. 2005.


Essential Questions in Teaching and Learning. The Teacher Development Network. 2008.
Plugging into the Web: A Webquest for Teachers. Developed by Debi Tisdell. 2002.
Questioning. Information Age Inquiry. SCLIS, IUPUI. 2006.
A Questioning Toolkit. Jamie McKenzie. From Now On. 1997.
NOTE: McKenzie has been writing on questioning for many years. He developed this chart as a tool.
The Question Mark? Jamie McKenzie. FNO Press.
Teaching for Understanding. AIM: A Project of Education Development Center. 2002 -2005.
Themes and Essential Questions: Framing Inquiry and Promoting Critical Thinking. Greece Central School District.
Using Essential Questions to Focus Teaching and Learning. Technology for Learning Consortium.


The British Museum.

The Children’s museum of Indianapolis.

Xpeditions Hall. National Geographic.

The Franklin Institute online.

Kids’ Space. 2006..The Kids’ Space Foundation.


Smithsonian National Zoological Park. (n.d


A Guide to Search Engines for Children. (2004). Paula Gragutsky.

Choose the Best Search for Your Information Need. (2006). NoodleTools, Inc.
KidsClick. (2005).

KidsClick Worlds of Web Searching. Ramapo Catskill Library System.

Kids Tools for Searching the Internet. (2003). Ramapo Catskill Internet Guides.

Navigator: A Selective Guide to the Internet. (2006). New York Times Co.


Blogger. Google. 1998-2008.

BUBBL.US. A simple tool for creating organizers that can be used by groups.

Google Docs and Spreadsheets. Google, Inc. 2008.

Library 2.0. Shambles.

New Tools for Learning. Joyce Valenza.

NoodleTools. (2006). NoodleTools, Inc.
Tools for creating bibliographies in several formats.

A Pathfinder for Constructing Pathfinders, 2005.

Pathfinders: Guide to Information Resources. (n.d.). John Newbery Elementary School.

Pathfinders. (n.d.). Springfield Township HS Virtual Library. Joyce Valenza.

PBWiki for Education. PBWiki. 2008.

The Virtual Institute. New Jersey Department of Education’s Technology Fellowship Initiative.

Wikispaces for Educators.

WordPress. Automatic. 2008.

ZOHO. Work Online. AdNet. 1999-2008.

Developed and Maintained by Marjorie L. Pappas. Last updated, March 2009.