Bullying

Delta Group

Scope

Bullying is a major concern for families today. Bullying can involve physical, verbal or emotional harassment, and is ever-present due to the advent of cyber bullying, where bullies use technology to taunt their victims. The stress and trauma of such behavior can have far reaching and even fatal effects. Parents need to work proactively to understand how bullying happens, identify the effects of bullying on their children, and learn how they can empower their children if they are bullied, whether in the real or the virtual world. This pathfinder highlights current books, journal articles and web resources on bullying. These resources have been carefully selected and evaluated by librarians so that parents of middle school students can feel confident in using the information to help their children. Parents can also use the resources to initiate discussions with their child, or to direct them for further personal exploration. (SF)

j0172629.gifEssential Questions

What strategy can parents develop in order to safeguard their children from cyberbullies? (AB)
What are the physical, emotional and social effects caused by bullying, and how can parents recognize their child's role in the behavior? (MB)
What intervention and prevention strategies can be developed and implemented to benefit children in bullying situations? (SF)

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What strategy can parents develop in order to safeguard their children from cyberbullies?

Keywords: cyberbullies, bullying, IM, Internet, teens, prevention, digital community, web sites, texting, cell phones, blogs, my- space

BOOKS

Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin W. Patchin. Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2008.
Hindura and Patchin gear this helpful book toward educators, but any parent would be interested in the information it delivers. This is one of the most impact full resources available. The mixture of research with real life accounts of cyberbullying and the recommendations, makes a powerful statement. There are many real life examples as to what can be done to help prevent cyberbullying from starting or what to do if it strikes your child. (AB)

Kowalski, Robin M., Susan P. Limber, and Patricia W. Agatston. Cyber Bullying : Bullying in the Digital Age. Grand Rapids: Blackwell Limited, 2007.
This book has gotten rave reviews, and for good reason, it really tackles the issues of cyberbullying from all angles. The authors use the most recent studies and statistical information combined with real life stories to paint an accurate picture of a growing problem. They talk about cyberbullying on a large and small scale and give real life suggestions on how to combat it. This is a great manual for a parent, teacher or administrator. (AB)

Willard, Nancy E. Cyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy Teens : Helping Young People Learn to Use the Internet Safely and Responsibly. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.
Willard appears to be the resident expert on cyberbullying. Or at least on kid safety and the Internet. This book discusses all types of Internet safety for teens and tweens. Willard addresses cyberbullying along with other pitfalls of teen Internet use. Parents will not feel they have to be computer savvy in order to protect their kids. The book is written as a parenting manual for the 21st century. (AB)

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Anderson, Tara, and Brian Sturm. "Cyberbullying: From Playground to Computer." Young Adult Library Services 5 (2007): 24-27.
Anderson and Strum explain what cyberbullying is, the most common ways it is performed, and who it most commonly effects. There is information on the playground bully vs the cyberbully asking the question "Who is Worse?". Lastly it addresses what can be done to stop cyberbullying in the home and at school. This section addresses parents and educators. (AB)

Juvonen, Jaana, and Elisheva F. Gross. "Extending the School Grounds?—Bullying." Journal of School Health 78 (2008): 496-505.
This journal article presents good background information for parents. It reviews the findings of an online survey about cyberbullying. The survey was given to 1,450.00 teens. The results help answer questions as to who is being bullied. Are the same kids who are bullied in school bullied over the Internet? The document closes with some recommendations on what to do of you find yourself or your child being bullied. It is very comprehensive but some parents want all the information they can get when it come to their child's safety. (AB)

Long, Cindy. "Silencing Cyberbullies." National Education Association 27 (2008): 6-6.
The National Teacher Association may be geared toward teachers not parents, but this article really speaks to any parent. This article recaps the emotional damage that cyberbullying can cause. It gives several real life accounts that are heartbreaking. The tragic story of Megan Meiger's suicide after being bullied is used as the most glaring example of cyberbullying. There is a human element to the journal article that really speaks to the severity of the problem. (AB)

McNamee, Abigail, and Mia Mercuino. "School-Wide Intervention in the Childhood Bullying Triangle." Childhood Education 84 (2008).
The "triangle" that is discussed in this article is that of bully, target, and the bystander. The article is not written solely about cyberbullying, but addressed the problem. Physical, verbal (or written) and social bullying are explored. This current article also includes bullying statistics, that parents will be interested in. (AB)

WEB SITES

Kowalski, R. "Stop Bullying Now Take a stand Lend a hand." What adults can do. Cyberbullying. Aug. 2005. US Dept of health and Human Services. :http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/adult/indexadult.asp?area=cyberbullying.
This is a web site is brought to us through the department of Health and Human Services. The cyberbully section is subtitled "What Adults Can Do" The site gives the reader many statistics as to who the cyberbully is and who is being bullied. They even report what time of day bullying most often occurs This was good information that many of the other sites did not think to include. There is not an overload of information on this site but what is included really empowers the parent to help the child. (AB)

"STOP cyberbulling." Stop cyberbullying. Wired Kids Inc. [http://stopcyberbullying.org>.
This clear and concise web site is geared toward parents, or kids. It is sub divided by topics such as: What is it, How it works, Why cyberbully, Prevention, Take action and lastly What’s the law. There are also subdivisions by ages 7-10 11-13 14-17. the information is comprehensive and current. The section on the law is one that is not addressed often on these sites. This is a good starting place for parents (AB)

Willard, Nancy. "Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online social aggression." Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use. http://www.cyberbully.org/cyberbully/
This site is not dedicated to cyberbullying alone. It is geared to help parents safeguard their children from all dangers the Internet offers.. This site really speaks to our audience. There is a parent’s guide to cyberbullying . This is a very comprehensive document written in a way that parents can get right to the meat of the problem.. The site also includes a separate parent guide under the cyberbully heading. Parents or students can access a poster as well.(AB)


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What are the physical, emotional and social effects caused by bullying, and how can parents recognize their child's role in the behavior? (MB)

Keywords: bullying, psychological aspects, emotional aspects, social aspects, schools, children, students, signs, consequences, effects, recognizing bullying, aggressive behavior, depression, childhood anxiety, peer abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, teasing

BOOKS

Coloroso, Barbara. The Bully, the Bullied, and the Bystander: From Preschool to High School--How Parents and Teachers Can Help Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.
Takes a hard look at all of the players in bullying: the bully, the bullied, and the bystander. The author suggests that the bystander is just as guilty as the bully. Each role is discussed at length, with suggestions on how to recognize and correct behavior. In addition to the more obvious abusive behavior, this book also discusses the more subtle types of bullying, including cliques, hazing, taunting and sexual bullying. (MB)

Simmons, Rachel. Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. New York: Harcourt, 2003.
Focuses on the bullying behavior of girls. Instead of being obvious in their abuse, girls have a tendency to use friendship as an opportunity to belittle and destroy other girls. Discusses the negative social and emotional effects of such relationships. (MB)

Rigby, Ken. Children and bullying : how parents and educators can reduce bullying at school. New York: Blackwell, 2008.
Author acknowledges that bullying, in various degrees of severity, is commonplace in schools. Through a discussion of research on bullying the book offers practical advice for parents and teachers on how to reduce this behavior and its impact. (MB)

Condrell, Kenneth N. The Unhappy Child: What Every Parent Needs to Know. New York: Prometheus, 2006.
The author, a child psychologist, presents several reasons why children succumb to depression. Each chapters is devoted to a specific cause and includes: definition, anecdotal case histories, probing questions for parents and suggestions for treatment. Chapters on peer rejection and cruelty, sibling abuse and feeling of failure may be of interest to parents. (MB)

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Henderson, Shirley. “Is Your Child the Victim of a Bully?” Ebony. November 2008: 170, 172, 174.
Details the experiences of children who have been bullied and their parents' reaction. Parents must be vigilant in monitoring their child's behavior, moods and social connections. Parents should have daily conversations with their children about their day and look for any changes in grades, diet, friends, and mood. (MB)

Beaty, Lee A., and Erick B. Alexeyev. "The problem of school bullies: what the research tells us." Adolescence 43.169 Spring 2008: 1-11.
This article reviews the literature on school bullying. The authors discuss the types of bullying, victim profiles, bully motivation and perceptions of bullying. In addition, they suggest strategies for intervention to reduce the occurrence of the behavior. (MB)

Scott, Sandra. "Inside the mind of a bully." Times Educational Supplement. 02 May 2008: VI-VII.
Review of recent literature that looks to understand how a child becomes a bully, in particular bullies who are former victims. Research suggests that the victim-turned-bully tends to be more aggressive than their counterparts, in part to regain lost confidence and power. (MB)

Frisén, Ann, Anna-karin Jonsson, and Camilla Persson. "ADOLESCENTS' PERCEPTION OF BULLYING: WHO IS THE VICTIM? WHO IS THE BULLY? WHAT CAN BE DONE TO STOP BULLYING?." Adolescence 42.168 Winter 2007: 749-761.
This article looks at bullying from the viewpoint of the student. Researchers asked children about their experiences, perceptions, and thoughts on why students bully or are bullied. The most common reason why a student would be bullied is for physical characteristics, such as frailness, obesity, or physical deformity. Those who bullied stated that the most common reason they would stop the behavior was because the victim stood up for themselves. (MB)

WEB SITES

Slobogin, Kathy. “What are kids saying about violence?” CNN.com. July 30 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/parenting/07/30/young.bullies/index.html.
One thousand children in grades 5-12 were surveyed by Families and Work Institute, a New York City-based non-profit organization. The results showed that students view bullying as not only physical – the most frequently encountered form of abuse is verbal. Gossip and teasing are not always innocent and can have a long-term impact on the victim. (MB)

Ross, Dorothea M. “Parents' Role in Bullying Prevention and Intervention.” National Education Association. http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullyingparentsrole.html.
National Education Association page for parents that discusses the role parents play in bullying. Author encourages parents to watch for signs that their child is a target while reminding them that their interaction with their children may be fostering a bully attitude. (MB)

Hylton, Hilary. “Schoolyard Bullying: Which Kids Are Most Vulnerable?” Time.com. October 14 2008. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1850405,00.html.
Overview of an article on predicting victimization that was recently published in Archives of General Psychiatry. Highlights behavior that may cause children to be more susceptible to being bullied or becoming a bully. (MB)

“Bullying and The School Bully.” About.com:Teens. http://parentingteens.about.com/od/bullying/Bullying_and_The_School_Bully.htm.
Includes a variety of short articles on the topic of bullying in schools. Articles attempt to define and describe the bully, provide guidance on “bully-proofing” your child, and recognizing the effects of being bullied. Also includes lists of books about bullies and bullying to help further the discussion with your child. (MB)

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What intervention and prevention strategies can be developed and implemented to benefit children in bullying situations? (SF)

Keywords: bullies, bully, bullying, bullying cycle, bystander, intervention, parents, prevention, strategies, target, zero tolerance

BOOKS

Beane, Allan L. Protect Your Child From Bullying: Expert Advice to Help You Recognize, Prevent and Stop Bullying Before Your Child Gets Hurt. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.
From the creator of the Bully Free program, this book will help parents recognize the signs of bullying in their children and empower them to take appropriate action when their child is being bullied. Parents will also be able to use the information in this book to teach their children the skills they need to deal with bullies, or suggestions for taking action when they see others being intimidated. (SF)

Davis, Stan, and Julia Davis. Empowering Bystanders in Bullying Prevention. Champaign, IL: Research Press, 2007.
Bystanders can play an important role in bullying prevention. They can provide support to the victim of bullying and can be instrumental in bringing bullying episodes to the attention of adults. This book empowers students by giving them strategies to help them take a more proactive, but safe, stance against bullies, and emphasizes that adults have an important role to play in responding to reports of bullying in a consistent and empathetic manner. (SF)

Haber, Joel, and Jenna Glatzer. Bullyproof Your Child for Life: Protect Your Child from Teasing, Taunting and Bullying for Good. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.
Joel Haber, an expert in bullying prevention, sets out his technique for eliminating bullying in this book. He explains why bullying happens, and explores various bullying situations, offering clear and practical advice on what will and will not work. He includes chapters on bullying in school, in sports, at camp as well as special needs and disability harassment. (SF)

Scaglione, Joanne, and Arrica Rose Scaglione. Bully-Proofing Children: A Practical, Hands-On Guide to Stop Bullying. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Education, 2006.
A practical and comprehensive guide to finding solutions for current bullying incidents and ideas for preventing future ones. Parents and teachers can use the solutions and strategies offered in this book as they work with children, giving them tools and skills that they can use to deal with any bullying situation confidently and assertively. (SF)

JOURNAL ARTICLES

(Articles retrieved from Academic Search Premier, Health Source - Consumer Edition, and Master FILE Premier databases.)
"For Your Protection." Current Health 33.7 (2007): 6-7.
This article deals with the subject of bullying in schools, and suggests actions that students can take to defend themselves if they feel threatened by a bully. After reading this article, students will be armed with a broad selection of common sense, non-violent strategies that they can use in the event that they find themselves face to face with a bully. Forearmed is forewarned. (SF)

Harvey, Mary. "Bullies Beware: How One School Stood Up to Bullies." Junior Scholastic 108.12 (2006):16-17.
Parents can use this article from Scholastic's news magazine aimed at middle schoolers to discuss with their children how one school took a stand against bullies. Students signed a contract pledging that they would not bully others and report any incidents of bullying. All reports would be followed up by school guidance counselors. The school was only able to get to the root of the problem by having everyone work together.

"Is your child or student a bully or a victim of bullying?" Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter 22.6 (2006): 8-9.
Guidelines for parents and teachers to combat "a serious public health issue": bullying. A school-wide initiative on bullying prevention is called for, with measures in place for students who need help, either as the bully or the bullied. Staff trained in bullying prevention and intervention, class time devoted to discussions on bullying and improving peer relations, strict rules regarding bullying and a change in the school's social climate will enforce a no-bullying policy. (SF)

Nudo, Lori. "Fighting the Real Bullies." Prevention 56.11 (2004): 123-24.
Anti-bullying programs don't work because they are targeting the wrong bullies. Bullies are not misfits and loners: they are often the confident, popular kids. Better ways of dealing with bullying are needed, such as supporting the victim, finding an exit strategy, helping your child avoid becoming a target and encouraging children to speak up when they see another child being bullied. (SF)

Vanderlip, Susie. "Teach Your G'kids to be Anti-bullies." Grand 4.2 (2008): 26-27.
Grandparents can play an important role in teaching their grandchildren how to escape the dangers of being bullied or from becoming a bully. Grandparents can enforce the message that bullying is not acceptable and can suggest tactics to use if bullying starts. Children will also model behavior and responses on what they see at home, so it is important for parents and grandparents to establish good behavior patterns that children can follow. (SF)

WEB SITES

"Bullying." National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center. 19 Oct. 2008. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/topics/bullying.asp
This website, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, includes several useful articles on bullying as well as fact sheets and printable booklets that can be used by teenagers and their parents to discuss the subject. Included in this website is a link to The ABCs of Bullying, an online course that includes a section on prevention techniques and programs. (SF)

"Dealing With Bullying." Kids Health. 2008. The Nemours Foundation. http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/problems/bullies.html
This site is aimed at teenagers and takes a practical approach to the problem of bullying. It provides well-rounded information on bullying: why people bully, the effects of bullying, the characteristics of a bully and what a teenager can do to solve a bullying problem. There are also links to similar articles and related topics, as well as pages on other teen issues. (SF)

"It's My Life: Bullies." PBS Kids. 2005. http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/friends/bullies/
A very child-friendly and visually appealing website about bullying. Several sub topics are dealt with, including a comprehensive section on how to handle a bully, not only "in the moment" when the first episode of bullying occurs, but what to do if it keeps happening. This site also emphasizes how a bystander can play an important role in preventing bullying. (SF)

Stop Bullying Now! 2008. Health Resources and Services Administration. 21 Oct. 2008. http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp?area=main
A website that aims to promote healthier behaviors in young people. Its bright and colorful format helps to engage children in a discussion about what bullying is and what can be done about it. Includes webisodes of animated bullying situations that can be used as discussion starters. There is also a section for adults and what they can do to stop bullying. (SF)

All web sites were accessed the weeks of October 14-27.



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